European expansion in the americas

A relatively common misconception is that a small number of conquistadores conquered vast territories, aided only by disease epidemics and their powerful caballeros. Under the direction of Henry the Navigatorthe Portuguese developed a new, much lighter ship, the caravelwhich could sail further and faster, [3] and, above all, was highly manoeuvrable and could sail much nearer the wind, or into the wind.

European exploration

This time the Polos took a different route: Chartered in and given a monopoly of all operations between South Africa and the Straits of Magellan, it served to concentrate resources and eliminate costly competition.

In the last years of the… The exploration of the Old World From the time of the earliest recorded history to the beginning of the 15th century, Western knowledge of the world widened from a river valley surrounded by mountains or desert the views of Babylonia and Egypt to a Mediterranean world with hinterlands extending from the Sahara to the Gobi Desert and from the Atlantic to the Indian Ocean the view of Greece and Rome.

Africa and the Americas in the Age of European Expansion Between the fifteenth and seventeenth centuries Africa and the Americas became the first areas of the world to experience significant consequences from European expansion.

The station at Madras, destined to become the English bastion on the east coast, was founded in Black African slaves were introduced to substitute for Native American labor in some locations—including the West Indieswhere the indigenous population was nearing extinction on many islands.

Two centuries later, about bce, Carthaginian power at the gate of the Mediterranean temporarily slackened as a result of squabbles with the Greek city of Syracuse on the island of Sicilyso Pytheasa Greek explorer of Massilia Marseillesailed through. The voyages of Christopher Columbus and John Cabot had their strongest inspirations in quite other traditions.

Their fathers signed the papers that gave them free passage to America and an unpaid job until they became of age. In fact, recent archaeological excavations have suggested a vast Spanish-Indian alliance numbering in the hundreds of thousands.

They began operating their own plantations, supplying pepper, cinnamon, sugar, tea, tobacco, and coffee for a fluctuating world market. Colonists often faced the threat of attacks from neighboring colonies, as well as from indigenous tribes and pirates.

In the Southern Hemisphere, they used the Southern Cross as the reference for celestial navigation. He was followed by other explorers such as John Cabotwho was sponsored by England and reached Newfoundland.

Subsequently, the English established trading posts on the west coast of India at Agra, Masulipatam, Balasore, and Surat.

North American furs, Chinese silks, and cottons from India and Mexico revolutionized clothing fashion. The Black Death of the 14th century also blocked travel and trade.

Aside from the possibility of treasure, the European governments aimed to find a passage through the Americas to Asia. Within fifty years after the arrival of Cortes in Mexico, the estimated population of the Aztec Empire fell by 90 percent.

Henry wished to know how far Muslim territories in Africa extended, hoping to bypass them and trade directly with West Africa by sea, find allies in legendary Christian lands to the south [48] like the long-lost Christian kingdom of Prester John [49] and to probe whether it was possible to reach the Indies by sea, the source of the lucrative spice trade.

But most Norsemen sailing in high latitudes explored not eastward but westward. In the Moluccas, for example, they drove out the English in the s, after repeated clashes.

Later, in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, when Spain, England, and France became interested in Africa, the Africans had firearms and were capable of resisting unwanted European encroachment.

What Were Reasons for European Exploration of the Americas?

Montreal was established inafter which French trapper-explorers began penetrating the region around the headwaters of the Mississippi. Although largely neglecting East Africa, they seized all Portuguese posts on the west coast north of Angola.The Age of Discovery, or the Age of Exploration (approximately from the beginning of the 15th century until the end of the 18th century) is an informal and loosely defined term for the period in European history in which extensive overseas exploration emerged as a powerful factor in European culture and was the beginning of globalization.

World History Sara Watts Home Syllabus Primary Readings: Africa and the Americas in the Age of European Expansion. Between the fifteenth and seventeenth centuries Africa and the Americas became the first areas of the world to experience significant consequences from European expansion.

The record of European expansion contains pages as grim as any in history. The African slave trade—begun by the Africans and the Arabs and turned into a profitable seaborne enterprise by the Portuguese, Dutch, and English—is a series of horrors, from the rounding up of the slaves by local chieftains in Africa, through their transportation across the Atlantic, to their sale in the Indies.

European exploration and expansion into the Americas began in with the first voyage of Christopher Columbus, who sailed west for Spain. During the following century, Dutch, Spanish, Portuguese and British explorers continued to risk their lives seeking treasure and adventure in the New World.

European Expansion: This map illustrates the main travels of the Age of Discovery, from The travel routes spanned between Europe and the eastern coast of the Americas, down through the Atlantic Ocean and around the southern tip of South America toward Southeast Asia, and down through the Atlantic and around the southern tip of Africa toward India.

The European colonization of the Americas describes the history of the settlement and establishment of control of the continents of the Americas by most of the naval powers of Europe.

The Age of Exploration was the beginning of territorial expansion for several European countries.

European expansion in the americas
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